Mountaineering and Risk   John Hunt    3
The Kongur Massif in Southern Xinjiang    Michael Ward    7
Mountains and Climbs in Tasmania    Roland Rodda    17

Sangay survived-the first time    Terris Moore    28

The coming disintegration of mountaineering    Dave Lord    32
'Whatever happened to mountaineering?'    Kevin FitzGerald    35
'Come on lads - it's no worse than the Midi/Plan'    John Barry    39
Present moments    W. H. Murray    47
An 18th Century Swiss journey    John Foster    57
Cirques and Cañons of the Pyrenees    J. G. R. Harding    71
The profit of impurism - the Shawangunk scene    Mark Robinson    81
The history of altitude    Sylvain Jouty    90
A Himalayan pass in winter - Tashi Lapcha La    Simon Fraser    96
The mountains of Mongolia    Janusz Baryla and Marek Brniak    103
The ladder of life    John S. Whyte    110
Oberland climbs in the 1880s    Dundas Harford    115
Mountaineering in Iceland-a personal appraisal    Roger Smith    119
Back in the USSR    John Town    126
Sydney Spencer-mountain photographer   C. Douglas Milner    132
Functional and design requirements of clothing 1   J. Keighley G. Steele    138
Avalanche on Ben Nevis    John King    146
The life and writings of Ramond    Kev Reynolds    147
Climbers' Playgrounds Europe   CAI (Turin) J. Schneider, M. Rebiffe    152
Turkey 1980 Torasan, Kackar and mountain rescue    Sidney Nowill    159

Soldiers on Api    Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw    167
The Picos de Europa    Louis C. Baume    171
The Spanish expedition Central Kangchenjunga 1978   Joaquim Prunés   177

The British Kishtwar Himalaya expedition 1979    Anthony Wheaton    181
Crevasse danger    WaIter Kirstein    183
Rakaposhi from the north    Shigeru Kodama    185
Memories of Arolla and Fafler Alp    Francis C. Irving    188
British Conway's Ogre expedition 1980    Tony Saunders    191
British 1980 expedition to Baltoro Kangri    Brian Hall    198
Mountains and education    Robin Hodgkin    201
One hundred years ago    C. A. Russell    212
Regional Notes 1980    Tom Connor    219
Equipment and Technique 1980    Tom Connor    237
Science Notes 1980    Tom Connor    238
Alpine Club Notes    242
Miscellaneous and Editor's Notes    243
The Alpine Journal - check list    248
South American mountain journals    Pieter Crow   250
Book Reviews    compiled by Geoffrey Templeman    251
In Memoriam    compiled by Geoffrey Templeman
   (Lucien Devies, Dorothy Arning, Margaret Helburn, Walter E. Herbert,
   Harold K. Hockenhull, Harold A. Mayer, David T. F. Munsey, Frank M. Pasteur,
    Doris S. Porter, Michael de Pret-Roose, Campbell H. Secord)    262
Index    272